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<h1>Assurance Policy for CAcert Community Members</h1>
<p><a href="PolicyOnPolicy.html"><img src="images/cacert-policy.png" id="graphics1" alt="CAcert Policy Status == POLICY" align="bottom" border="0" height="33" width="90"></a>
<br>
Editor: Teus Hagen<br>
Creation date: 2008-05-30<br>
Last change by: Iang<br>
Last change date: 2009-01-08<br>
Status: POLICY p20090105.2
</p>
<h2><a name="0">0.</a> Preamble</h2>
<h3><a name="0.1">0.1.</a> Definition of Terms</h3>
<dl>
<dt><i>Member</i> </dt>
<dd> A Member is an individual who has agreed to the CAcert
Community Agreement
(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php" target="_blank">CCA</a>)
and has created successfully
a CAcert login account on the CAcert web site. </dd>
<dt> <i>Assurance</i> </dt>
<dd> Assurance is the process by which a Member of CAcert
Community (Assurer) identifies an individual (<span lang="en-US">Assuree</span>).
</dd>
<dt> <i>Prospective Member</i> </dt>
<dd> An individual who participates in the process of Assurance,
but has not yet created a CAcert login account. </dd>
<dt> <i>Name</i> </dt>
<dd> A Name is the full name of an individual.
</dd>
<dt> <i>Secondary Distinguishing Feature</i>
</dt>
<dd> An additional personal data item of the Member
that assists discrimination from Members with similar full names.
(Currently this is the Date of Birth (DoB).)
</dd>
</dl>
<h3><a name="0.2">0.2.</a> The CAcert Web of Trust</h3>
<p>
In face-to-face meetings,
an Assurer allocates a number of Assurance Points
to the Member being Assured.
CAcert combines the Assurance Points
into a global <i>Web-of-Trust</i> (or "WoT").
</p>
<p>
CAcert explicitly chooses to meet its various goals by
construction of a Web-of-Trust of all Members.
</p>
<h3><a name="0.3">0.3.</a> Related Documentation</h3>
<p>
Documentation on Assurance is split between this
Assurance Policy (AP) and the
<a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/AssuranceHandbook2" target="_blank">Assurance
Handbook</a>. The policy is controlled by Configuration Control
Specification
(<a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/PolicyDrafts/ConfigurationControlSpecification" target="_blank">CCS</a>)
under Policy on Policy
(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/PolicyOnPolicy.php" target="_blank">PoP</a>)
policy document regime. Because Assurance is an active area, much
of the practice is handed over to the Assurance Handbook, which is
not a controlled policy document, and can more easily respond to
experience and circumstances. It is also more readable.
</p>
<p>
See also Organisation Assurance Policy (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/OrganisationAssurancePolicy.php" target="_blank">OAP</a>)
and CAcert Policy Statement (<a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/policy.htm" target="_blank">CPS</a>).
</p>
<h2><a name="1">1.</a> Assurance Purpose</h2>
<p>The purpose of Assurance is to add confidence
in the Assurance Statement made by the CAcert Community of a Member. </p>
<p>With sufficient assurances, a Member may: (a) issue certificates
with their assured Name included, (b) participate in assuring others,
and (c) other related activities. The strength of these activities is
based on the strength of the assurance. </p>
<h3><a name="1.1">1.1.</a>The Assurance Statement</h3>
<p>
The Assurance Statement makes the following claims
about a person:
</p>
<ol>
<li>
<p>The person is a bona fide Member. In other words, the
person is a member of the CAcert Community as defined by the CAcert
Community Agreement (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php" target="_blank">CCA</a>); </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>The Member has a (login) account with CAcert's on-line
registration and service system; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>The Member can be determined from any CAcert certificate
issued by the Account; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>The Member is bound into CAcert's Arbitration as defined
by the CAcert Community Agreement; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Some personal details of the Member are known to CAcert:
the individual Name(s), primary and other listed individual email
address(es), secondary distinguishing feature (e.g. DoB). </p>
</li>
</ol>
<p>The confidence level of the Assurance Statement is expressed by
the Assurance Points. </p>
<h3><a name="1.2">1.2.</a>Relying Party Statement</h3>
<p>The primary goal of the Assurance Statement is for the express
purpose of certificates to meet the needs of the <i>Relying Party
Statement</i>, which latter is found in the Certification Practice
Statement (<a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/policy.htm" target="_blank">CPS</a>).
</p>
<p>When a certificate is issued, some of the Assurance Statement may
be incorporated, e.g. Name. Other parts may be implied, e.g.
Membership, exact account and status. They all are part of the
<i>Relying Party Statement</i>. In short, this means that other
Members of the Community may rely on the information verified by
Assurance and found in the certificate.</p>
<p>In particular, certificates are sometimes considered to provide
reliable indications of e.g. the Member's Name and email address. The
nature of Assurance, the number of Assurance Points, and other
policies and processes should be understood as limitations on any
reliance. </p>
<h2><a name="2">2.</a> The Member</h2>
<h3><a name="2.1">2.1.</a> The Member's Name </h3>
<p>
At least one individual Name is recorded in the Member's
CAcert login account. The general standard of a Name is:
</p>
<ul>
<li>
<p>
The Name should be recorded as written in a
government-issued photo identity document (ID).
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
The Name should be recorded as completely as possible.
That is, including all middle names, any titles and extensions,
without abbreviations, and without transliteration of characters.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>The Name is recorded as a string of characters,
encoded in <span lang="en-US">unicode</span>
transformation format.</p>
</li>
</ul>
<h3><a name="2.2">2.2.</a> Multiple Names and variations</h3>
<p>
In order to handle the contradictions in the above general standard,
a Member may record multiple Names or multiple variations of a Name
in her CAcert online Account.
Examples of variations include married names,
variations of initials of first or middle names,
abbreviations of a first name,
different language or country variations,
and transliterations of characters in a name.
</p>
<h3><a name="2.3">2.3.</a> Status and Capabilities</h3>
<p>
A Name which has reached
the level of 50 Assurance Points is defined as an Assured
Name. An Assured Name can be used in a certificate issued by CAcert.
A Member with at least one Assured Name has reached the Assured
Member status.
Additional capabilities are described in Table 1.
</p>
<blockquote>
<p align="left"><font size="2"><i>Table 1:
Assurance Capability</i></font></p>
<table border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0">
<tbody>
<tr>
<td width="10%">
<p align="left"><i>Minimum Assurance Points</i></p>
</td>
<td width="15%">
<p align="left"><i>Capability</i></p>
</td>
<td width="15%">
<p align="left"><i>Status</i></p>
</td>
<td width="60%">
<p align="left"><i>Comment</i></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr valign="top">
<td>
<p align="center">0</p>
</td>
<td>
<p align="left">Request Assurance</p>
</td>
<td>
<p align="left">Prospective Member</p>
</td>
<td>
<p align="left">Individual taking part of an
Assurance, who does not have created a CAcert login account (yet). The
allocation of Assurance Points is awaiting login account creation.</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr valign="top">
<td>
<p align="center">0</p>
</td>
<td>
<p align="left">Request unnamed certificates</p>
</td>
<td>
<p align="left">Member</p>
</td>
<td>
<p align="left">Although the Member's details are
recorded in the account, they are not highly assured.</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr valign="top">
<td>
<p align="center">50</p>
</td>
<td>
<p align="left">Request named certificates</p>
</td>
<td>
<p align="left">Assured Member</p>
</td>
<td>
<p align="left">Statements of Assurance: the Name is
assured to 50 Assurance Points or more</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr valign="top">
<td>
<p align="center">100</p>
</td>
<td>
<p align="left">Become an Assurer</p>
</td>
<td>
<p align="left">Prospective Assurer</p>
</td>
<td>
<p align="left">Assured to 100 Assurance Points (or
more) on at least one Name, and passing the Assurer Challenge.</p>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
</blockquote>
<p>
A Member may check the status of another Member, especially
for an assurance process.
Status may be implied from information in a certificate.
The number of Assurance Points for each Member is not published.
</p>
<p>
The CAcert Policy Statement
(<a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/policy.htm" target="_blank">CPS</a>)
and other policies may list other capabilities that rely on Assurance
Points.
</p>
<h2><a name="3">3.</a> The Assurer</h2>
<p>An Assurer is a Member with the following: </p>
<ul>
<li>
<p>Is assured to a minimum of 100 Assurance Points; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Has passed the CAcert Assurer Challenge. </p>
</li>
</ul>
<p>The Assurer Challenge is administered by the Education Team on
behalf of the Assurance Officer. </p>
<h3><a name="3.1">3.1.</a> The Obligations of the Assurer</h3>
<p>The Assurer is obliged to: </p>
<ul>
<li>
<p>Follow this Assurance Policy; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Follow any additional rules of detail laid out by the
CAcert Assurance Officer; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Be guided by the CAcert <a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/AssuranceHandbook2" target="_blank">Assurance Handbook</a> in their
judgement; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Make a good faith effort at identifying and verifying
Members; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Maintain the documentation on each Assurance; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Deliver documentation to Arbitration, or as otherwise
directed by the Arbitrator; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Keep up-to-date with developments within the CAcert
Community. </p>
</li>
</ul>
<h2><a name="4">4.</a> The Assurance</h2>
<h3><a name="4.1">4.1.</a> The Assurance Process</h3>
<p>The Assurer conducts the process of Assurance with each
Member. </p>
<p>The process consists of: </p>
<ol>
<li>
<p>Voluntary agreement by both Assurer and Member or
Prospective Member to conduct the Assurance; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Personal meeting of Assurer and Member or Prospective
Member; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Recording of essential details on CAcert Assurance
Programme form; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Examination of Identity documents by Assurer and
verification of recorded details (the Name(s) and Secondary
Distinguishing Feature, e.g., DoB); </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Allocation of Assurance Points by Assurer; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Optional: supervision of reciprocal Assurance made by
Assuree (Mutual Assurance); </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Safekeeping of the CAcert Assurance Programme (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/cap.php" target="_blank">CAP</a>)
forms by Assurer. </p>
</li>
</ol>
<h3><a name="4.2">4.2.</a> Mutual Assurance</h3>
<p>Mutual Assurance follows the principle of reciprocity. This
means
that the Assurance may be two-way, and that each member participating
in the Assurance procedure should be able to show evidence of their
identity to the other. </p>
<p>In the event that an Assurer is assured by a Member who is not
certified as an Assurer, the Assurer supervises the Assurance
procedure and process, and is responsible for the results. </p>
<p>Reciprocity maintains a balance between the (new) member and
the
Assurer, and reduces any sense of power. It is also an important aid
to the assurance training for future Assurers. </p>
<h3><a name="4.3">4.3.</a> Assurance Points</h3>
<p>The Assurance applies Assurance Points to each Member which
measure the increase of confidence in the Statement (above).
Assurance Points should not be interpreted for any other purpose.
Note that, even though they are sometimes referred to as <i>Web-of-Trust</i>
(Assurance) Points, or <i>Trust</i> Points, the meaning
of the word
'Trust' is not well defined. </p>
<p><i>Assurance Points Allocation</i><br>
An Assurer can allocate a
number of Assurance Points to the Member according to the Assurer's
experience (Experience Point system, see below). The allocation of
the maximum means that the Assurer is 100% confident in the
information presented: </p>
<ul>
<li>
<p>Detail on form, system, documents, person in accordance; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Sufficient quality identity documents have been checked; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Assurer's familiarity with identity documents; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>The Assurance Statement is confirmed. </p>
</li>
</ul>
<p>
Any lesser confidence should result in less Assurance Points for a
Name. If the Assurer has no confidence in the information presented,
then <i>zero</i> Assurance Points may be allocated by the Assurer.
For example, this may happen if the identity documents are totally
unfamiliar to the Assurer. The number of Assurance Points from <i>zero</i>
to <i>maximum</i> is guided by the Assurance Handbook
and the judgement of the Assurer.
If there is negative confidence the Assurer should consider
filing a dispute.
</p>
<p>Multiple Names should be allocated Assurance Points
independently within a single Assurance. </p>
<p>
A Member who is not an Assurer may award an Assurer in a
reciprocal process a maximum of 2 Assurance Points, according to
her judgement. The Assurer should strive to have the Member allocate
according to the Member's judgement, and stay on the cautious side;
the Member new to the assurance process
should allocate <i>zero</i> Assurance Points
until she gains some confidence in what is happening.
</p>
<p>
In general, for a Member to reach 50 Assurance Points, the Member must
have participated in at least two assurances, and
at least one Name will have been assured to that level.
</p>
<p>
To reach 100 Assurance
Points, at least one Name of the Assured Member must have been
assured at least three times.
</p>
<p>
The maximum number of Assurance
Points which can be allocated for an Assurance under this policy
and under any act under any
Subsidiary Policy (below) is 50 Assurance Points.
</p>
<h3><a name="4.4">4.4.</a> Experience Points</h3>
<p>The maximum number of Assurance Points that may be awarded by
an
Assurer is determined by the Experience Points of the Assurer. </p>
<blockquote>
<p align="left"><font size="2"><i>Table 2:
Maximum of Assurance Points </i></font>
</p>
<table border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" width="15%">
<tbody>
<tr>
<td>
<p><i>Assurer's Experience Points</i></p>
</td>
<td>
<p><i>Allocatable Assurance Points</i></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<p align="center">0</p>
</td>
<td>
<p align="center">10</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<p align="center">10</p>
</td>
<td>
<p align="center">15</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<p align="center">20</p>
</td>
<td>
<p align="center">20</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<p align="center">30</p>
</td>
<td>
<p align="center">25</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<p align="center">40</p>
</td>
<td>
<p align="center">30</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<p align="center">&gt;=50</p>
</td>
<td>
<p align="center">35</p>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
</blockquote>
<p>An Assurer is given a maximum of 2 Experience Points for every
completed Assurance. On reaching Assurer status, the Experience
Points start at 0 (zero). </p>
<p>Less Experience Points (1) may be given for mass Assurance
events,
where each Assurance is quicker. </p>
<p>Additional Experience Points may be granted temporarily or
permanently to an Assurer by CAcert Inc.'s Committee (board), on
recommendation from the Assurance Officer. </p>
<p>Experience Points are not to be confused with Assurance
Points. </p>
<h3><a name="4.5">4.5.</a> CAcert Assurance Programme (CAP) form</h3>
<p>The CAcert Assurance Programme (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/cap.php" target="_blank">CAP</a>)
form requests the following details of each Member or Prospective
Member: </p>
<ul>
<li>
<p>Name(s), as recorded in the on-line account; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Primary email address, as recorded in the on-line account;
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Secondary Distinguishing Feature, as recorded in the
on-line account (normally, date of birth); </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Statement of agreement with the CAcert Community
Agreement; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Permission to the Assurer to conduct the Assurance
(required for privacy reasons); </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Date and signature of the Assuree. </p>
</li>
</ul>
<p>The CAP form requests the following details of the Assurer: </p>
<ul>
<li>
<p>At least one Name as recorded in the on-line account of
the Assurer; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Assurance Points for each Name in the identity
document(s); </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Statement of Assurance; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Optional: If the Assurance is reciprocal, then the
Assurer's email address and Secondary Distinguishing Feature are
required as well; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Date, location of Assurance and signature of Assurer. </p>
</li>
</ul>
<p>The CAP forms are to be kept at least for 7 years by the
Assurer. </p>
<h2><a name="5">5.</a> The Assurance Officer</h2>
<p>The Committee (board) of CAcert Inc. appoints an Assurance
Officer
with the following responsibilities: </p>
<ul>
<li>
<p>Reporting to the Committee and advising on all matters to
do with Assurance; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Training and testing of Assurers, in association with the
Education Team; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Updating this Assurance Policy, under the process
established by Policy on Policy (<a href="https://www.cacert.org/policy/PolicyOnPolicy.php" target="_blank">PoP</a>); </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Management of all Subsidiary Policies (see below) for
Assurances, under Policy on Policy; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Managing and creating rules of detail or procedure where
inappropriate for policies; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Incorporating rulings from Arbitration into policies,
procedures or guidelines; </p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Assisting the Arbitrator in any requests; </p>